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Rhodopis The oldest known version of the Cinderella story is the ancient Greek story of Rhodopis ,   a Greek courtesan living in the colony of Naucratis in Egypt , whose name means "Rosy-Cheeks". The story is first recorded by the Greek geographer Strabo in his Geographica book 17, 33 , probably written around 7 BC or thereabouts: Herodotus , some five centuries before Strabo, records a popular legend about a possibly-related courtesan named Rhodopis in his Histories , : Foot binding later became a common practice to prevent feet from growing.
In some of these, the siblings are female, while in others, they are male. One of the tales, "Judar and His Brethren", departs from the happy endings of previous variants and reworks the plot to give it a tragic ending instead, with the younger brother being poisoned by his elder brothers. The story itself was based in the Kingdom of Naples , at that time the most important political and cultural center of Southern Italy and among the most influential capitals in Europe, and written in the Neapolitan dialect.
The name "Cenerentola" comes from the Italian word "cenere" — tchenere ash — cinder. It has to do with the fact that servants and scullions were usually soiled with ash at that time, because of their cleaning work and also because they had to live in cold basements so they usually tried to get warm by sitting close to the fireplace. Cenerentola, by Basile[ edit ] Giambattista Basile , an Italian soldier and government official, assembled a set of oral folk tales into a written collection titled Lo cunto de li cunti The Story of Stories , or Pentamerone.
It included the tale of Cenerentola, which features a wicked stepmother and evil stepsisters, magical transformations, a missing slipper, and a hunt by a monarch for the owner of the slipper. It was published posthumously in 1634.
A prince has a daughter, Zezolla tonnie the Cinderella figure , who is tended by a beloved governess. The governess then brings forward six daughters of her own, who abuse Zezolla tonnie , and send her into the kitchen to work as a servant. The prince goes to the island of Sinia, meets a fairy who gives presents to his daughter, and brings back for her: The girl cultivates the tree, and when the king hosts a ball, Zezolla appears dressed richly by a fairy living in the date tree.
The king falls in love with her, but Zezolla runs away before he can find out who she is. Twice Zezolla escapes the king and his servants. The king invites all of the maidens in the land to a ball with a shoe-test, identifies Zezolla tonnie after the shoe jumps from his hand to her foot, and eventually marries her. Writing blank entitled Cinderella or The little glass slipper, educational folder.
One of the most popular versions of Cinderella was written in French by Charles Perrault in 1697, under the name Cendrillon. The popularity of his tale was due to his additions to the story, including the pumpkin , the fairy-godmother and the introduction of "glass" slippers. A wealthy widower marries a proud and haughty woman as his second wife. She has two daughters , who are equally vain and selfish. The gentleman has a beautiful young daughter, a girl of unparalleled kindness and sweet temper.
She often arises covered in cinders, giving rise to the mocking nickname "Cinderella" by her stepsisters. Cinderella bears the abuse patiently and does not tell her father, who would have scolded her.
One day, the Prince invites all the young ladies in the land to a royal ball , planning to choose a wife. The two stepsisters gleefully plan their wardrobes for the ball, and taunt Cinderella by telling her that maids are not invited to the ball. As the sisters depart to the ball, Cinderella cries in despair. Her Fairy Godmother magically appears and immediately begins to transform Cinderella from house servant to the young lady she was by birth, all in the effort to get Cinderella to the ball.
She turns a pumpkin into a golden carriage, mice into horses , a rat into a coachman , and lizards into footmen. The Godmother tells her to enjoy the ball, but warns her that she must return before midnight , when the spells will be broken.
At the ball, the entire court is entranced by Cinderella, especially the Prince. At this first ball, Cinderella remembers to leave before midnight. Back home, Cinderella graciously thanks her Godmother.
She then greets the stepsisters, who had not recognized her earlier, and talk of nothing but the beautiful girl at the ball. The Prince has become even more infatuated, and Cinderella in turn becomes so enchanted by him she loses track of time and leaves only at the final stroke of midnight, losing one of her glass slippers on the steps of the palace in her haste.
The Prince chases her, but outside the palace, the guards see only a simple country girl leave. The Prince pockets the slipper and vows to find and marry the girl to whom it belongs. Meanwhile, Cinderella keeps the other slipper, which does not disappear when the spell is broken. The Prince tries the slipper on all the women in the kingdom. Cinderella asks if she may try, but the stepsisters taunt her. Naturally, the slipper fits perfectly, and Cinderella produces the other slipper for good measure.
Cinderella married the Prince as her stepsisters are married to two handsome gentlemen of the royal court. The first moral of the story is that beauty is a treasure, but graciousness is priceless. Without it, nothing is possible; with it, one can do anything. That "without doubt it is a great advantage to have intelligence, courage, good breeding, and common sense.
These, and similar talents come only from heaven, and it is good to have them. However, even these may fail to bring you success, without the blessing of a godfather or a godmother.
Another well-known version was recorded by the German brothers Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century. The tale is called "Aschenputtel" "Cinderella" in English translations. The stepsisters suffer a terrible punishment for their cruelty. She calls for her only daughter, and tells her to remain good and kind, as God would protect her.
She then dies and is buried. The gentleman marries another woman with two older daughters from a previous marriage. They have beautiful faces and fair skin, but their hearts are cruel and wicked.
They banish her into the kitchen, and give her the nickname "Aschenputtel" "Ashfool". She is forced to do all kinds of hard work from dawn to dusk. The cruel sisters will do nothing but mock her and make her chores harder by creating messes.
One day the gentleman visits a fair, promising his stepdaughters gifts of luxury. The eldest asks for beautiful dresses, while the younger for pearls and diamonds. His own daughter merely begs for the first twig to knock his hat off on the way. The gentleman goes on his way, and acquires presents for his stepdaughters. While passing a forest he gets a hazel twig, and gives it to his daughter. The girl prays under it three times a day, and a white bird always comes to her.
She will tell her wishes to the bird, and every time the bird will throw down to her what she has wished for. The king decides to ordain a festival that will last for three days and invites all the beautiful maidens in the land to attend so that the prince can select one of them for his bride. The two sisters are also invited, but when Aschenputtel begs them to allow her to go with them into the celebration, the stepmother refuses because she has no decent dress nor shoes to wear.
When the girl insists, the woman throws a dish of lentils into the ashes for her to pick up, guaranteeing her permission to attend the festival, if she can clean up the lentils in two hours.
When the girl accomplishes the task in less than an hour with the help of a flock of white doves that came when she sings a certain chant, the stepmother only redoubles the task and throws down even a greater quantity of lentils. The girl retreats to the graveyard and asks to be clothed in silver and gold.
The white bird drops a gold and silver gown and silk shoes. She goes to the feast. The prince dances with her all the time, and when sunset comes she asks to leave.
The prince escorts her home, but she eludes him and jumps inside the pigeon coop. The father has come home ahead of time and the prince asks him to chop the pigeon coop down, but Aschenputtel has already escaped.
The next day, the girl appears in grander apparel. The prince falls in love with her and dances with her for the whole day, and when sunset comes, the prince tries to accompany her home again. However, she climbs a pear tree to escape him. The Prince calls her father who chops down the tree, wondering if it could be Aschenputtel, but Aschenputtel has disappeared. The third day, she appears dressed in the grandest with slippers of gold.
Now the prince is determined to keep her, and has the entire stairway smeared with pitch. Aschenputtel loses track of time, and when she runs away one of her golden slippers sticks on that pitch. The prince proclaims that he will marry the maiden whose foot fits the golden slipper. The sister was advised by her mother to cut off her toes in order to fit the slipper.
While riding with the stepsister, the two doves from Heaven tell the Prince that blood drips from her foot. Appalled by her treachery, he goes back again and tries the slipper on the other stepsister.
She cuts off part of her heel in order to get her foot in the slipper, and again the prince is fooled. He comes back to inquire about another girl. Aschenputtel appears after washing herself, and when she puts on the slipper, the prince recognizes her as the stranger with whom he has danced at the ball. When the wedding comes to an end, and Aschenputtel and her prince march out of the church, the doves fly again, striking the remaining eyes of the two evil sisters blind, a punishment they had to endure for the rest of their lives.
However, the father in this tale plays an active role in several scenes, and it is not explained why he tolerates the mistreatment of his child. Although many variants of Cinderella feature the wicked stepmother, the defining trait of type 510A is a female persecutor: In other fairy tales featuring the ball, she was driven from home by the persecutions of her father, usually because he wished to marry her.
In La Cenerentola , Gioachino Rossini inverted the sex roles: Cenerentola is oppressed by her stepfather. This makes the opera Aarne-Thompson type 510B. Folklorists often interpret the hostility between the stepmother and stepdaughter as just such a competition for resources, but seldom does the tale make it clear.