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American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation. The sacking of York was a primary motivation for the Burning of Washington by British troops later in the war.
York was incorporated as the City of Toronto on March 6, 1834, reverting to its original native name. Reformist politician William Lyon Mackenzie became the first Mayor of Toronto and led the unsuccessful Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837 against the British colonial government. In the 1840s, an eating house at Frederick and King Streets, a place of mercantile prosperity in early Toronto, was operated by a man of colour named Bloxom. The first significant population influx occurred when the Great Irish Famine brought a large number of Irish to the city, some of them transient, and most of them Catholic.
By 1851, the Irish-born population had become the largest single ethnic group in the city. Smaller numbers of Protestant Irish immigrants were welcomed by the existing Scottish and English population, giving the Orange Order significant and long-lasting influence over Toronto society. For brief periods Toronto was twice the capital of the united Province of Canada: Since then, the capital of Canada has remained Ottawa , Ontario. Because of its provincial capital status, the city was also the location of Government House , the residence of the viceregal representative of the Crown in right of Ontario.
Long before the Royal Military College of Canada was established in 1876, there were proposals for military colleges in Canada.
Staffed by British Regulars, adult male students underwent a three-month long military course at the School of Military Instruction in Toronto. In 1868, Schools of cavalry and artillery instruction were formed in Toronto. Long-distance railway lines were constructed, including a route completed in 1854 linking Toronto with the Upper Great Lakes. The advent of the railway dramatically increased the numbers of immigrants arriving, commerce and industry, as had the Lake Ontario steamers and schooners entering port before.
These enabled Toronto to become a major gateway linking the world to the interior of the North American continent. A preserved section of this once dominant local industry remains in the Distillery District. The harbour allowed for sure access to grain and sugar imports used in processing. Expanding port and rail facilities brought in northern timber for export and imported Pennsylvania coal.
Industry dominated the waterfront for the next 100 years. Horse-drawn streetcars gave way to electric streetcars in 1891, when the city granted the operation of the transit franchise to the Toronto Railway Company. The public transit system passed into public ownership in 1921 as the Toronto Transportation Commission , later renamed the Toronto Transit Commission. The system now has the third-highest ridership of any city public transportation system in North America.
The city received new immigrant groups beginning in the late 19th century into the early 20th century, particularly Germans, French, Italians, and Jews from various parts of Eastern Europe.
They were soon followed by Chinese, Russians, Poles, and immigrants from other Eastern European nations. However, by 1934, the Toronto Stock Exchange had become the largest in the country. Following the elimination of racially based immigration policies by the late 1960s, immigration began from all parts of the world. During this time, in part owing to the political uncertainty raised by the resurgence of the Quebec sovereignty movement , many national and multinational corporations moved their head offices from Montreal to Toronto and Western Canadian cities.
The metropolitan government began to manage services that crossed municipal boundaries, including highways, police services, water and public transit. In that year, a half-century after the Great Fire of 1904, disaster struck the city again when Hurricane Hazel brought intense winds and flash flooding. All six municipalities were amalgamated into a single municipality, creating the current City of Toronto, successor of the old City of Toronto. John Tory is the current mayor.
On March 6, 2009, the city celebrated the 175th anniversary of its inception as the City of Toronto in 1834. Toronto hosted the 4th G20 summit during June 26—27, 2010. This included the largest security operation in Canadian history and, following large-scale protests and rioting, resulted in the largest mass arrest more than a thousand people in Canadian history. The Toronto Islands and Port Lands extend out into the lake, allowing for a somewhat sheltered Toronto Harbour south of the downtown core.
Topography This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
July 2016 Learn how and when to remove this template message The city is mostly flat or gentle hills and the land gently slopes upward away from the lake. The flat land is interrupted by numerous ravines cut by numerous creeks and the valleys of the three rivers in Toronto: Most of the ravines and valley lands in Toronto today are park lands, and recreational trails are laid out along the ravines and valleys.
The original town was laid out in a grid plan on the flat plain north of the harbour, and this plan was extended outwards as the city grew. The width and depth of several of the ravines and valleys are such that several grid streets such as Finch Avenue , Leslie Street , Lawrence Avenue , and St. Clair Avenue , terminate on one side of a ravine or valley and continue on the other side. Toronto has many bridges spanning the ravines.
Large bridges such as the Prince Edward Viaduct were built to span wide river valleys. Despite its deep ravines, Toronto is not remarkably hilly, but its elevation does increase steadily away from the lake.
Lake Ontario remains occasionally visible from the peaks of these ridges as far north as Eglinton Avenue , 7 to 8 kilometres 4. The other major geographical feature of Toronto is its escarpments. During the last ice age , the lower part of Toronto was beneath Glacial Lake Iroquois. Other observable sections include the area near St.
The geography of the lake shore is greatly changed since the first settlement of Toronto. Much of the land on the north shore of the harbour is landfill, filled in during the late 19th century. Until then, the lakefront docks then known as wharves were set back farther inland than today. Much of the adjacent Port Lands on the east side of the harbour was a wetland filled in early in the 20th century. The shoreline from the harbour west to the Humber River has been extended into the lake.
Further west, landfill has created extensions of land such as Humber Bay Park. The Toronto Islands were a natural peninsula until a storm in 1858 severed their connection to the mainland, creating a channel to the harbour. The peninsula was formed by longshore drift taking the sediments deposited along the Scarborough Bluffs shore and transporting them to the Islands area.
The other source of sediment for the Port Lands wetland and the peninsula was the deposition of the Don River, which carved a wide valley through the sedimentary land of Toronto and deposited it in the harbour, which is quite shallow. The harbour and the channel of the Don River have been dredged numerous times for shipping. The lower section of the Don River was straightened and channelled in the 19th century. The former mouth drained into a wetland; today the Don drains into the harbour through a concrete waterway, the Keating Channel.
Dfa , with warm, humid summers and cold winters. As a result of the rapid passage of weather systems such as high- and low-pressure systems , the weather is variable from day to day in all seasons. The denser urban scape makes for warmer nights year around; the average nighttime temperature is about 3.
However, mild stretches also occur in most winters, melting accumulated snow. The summer months are characterized by very warm temperatures. Spring and autumn are transitional seasons with generally mild or cool temperatures with alternating dry and wet periods. There can be periods of dry weather, but drought -like conditions are rare.