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Дата: 26.01.2018

страх (1983)

Is fear of death a reasonable appropriate response? What conditions are required and what are appropriate conditions for feeling fear of death? What is meant by fear, and how much fear is appropriate? According to Kagan for fear in general to make sense, three conditions should be met: He argues, that death does not meet the first two criteria, even if death is a "deprivation of good things" and even if one believes in a painful afterlife.

Because death is certain, it also does not meet the third criterion, but he grants that the unpredictability of when one dies may be cause to a sense of fear. The survey found a negative correlation between fear of death and "religious concern". Both religiousness and spirituality were related to positive psychosocial functioning, but only church-centered religiousness protected subjects against the fear of death.

Xenophobia and Neophobia Fear of the unknown or irrational fear is caused by negative thinking worry which arises from anxiety accompanied with a subjective sense of apprehension or dread. Irrational fear shares a common neural pathway with other fears, a pathway that engages the nervous system to mobilize bodily resources in the face of danger or threat.

Many people are scared of the "unknown". The irrational fear can branch out to many areas such as the hereafter, the next ten years or even tomorrow. Chronic irrational fear has deleterious effects since the elicitor stimulus is commonly absent or perceived from delusions. In these cases specialists use False Evidence Appearing Real as a definition. Such fear can create comorbidity with the anxiety disorder umbrella. That can lead to habits such as laziness and procrastination. For example, parents tell their children not to talk to strangers in order to protect them.

In school they would be motivated to not show fear in talking with strangers, but to be assertive and also aware of the risks and the environment in which it takes place. Ambiguous and mixed messages like this can affect their self-esteem and self-confidence. Mechanism[ edit ] Often laboratory studies with rats are conducted to examine the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear responses.

However the rats did show signs of avoidance learning, not fear, but simply avoiding the area that brought pain to the test rats. The avoidance learning of rats is seen as a conditioned response , and therefore the behavior can be unconditioned, as supported by the earlier research.

Species-specific defense reactions SSDRs or avoidance learning in nature is the specific tendency to avoid certain threats or stimuli, it is how animals survive in the wild. Humans and animals both share these species-specific defense reactions, such as the flight-or-fight, which also include pseudo-aggression, fake or intimidating aggression and freeze response to threats, which is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system.

These SSDRs are learned very quickly through social interactions between others of the same species, other species, and interaction with the environment. The animal that survives is the animal that already knows what to fear and how to avoid this threat. An example in humans is the reaction to the sight of a snake, many jump backwards before cognitively realizing what they are jumping away from, and in some cases it is a stick rather than a snake.

As with many functions of the brain, there are various regions of the brain involved in deciphering fear in humans and other nonhuman species. The amygdala plays an important role in SSDR, such as the ventral amygdalofugal, which is essential for associative learning , and SSDRs are learned through interaction with the environment and others of the same species. An emotional response is created only after the signals have been relayed between the different regions of the brain, and activating the sympathetic nervous systems; which controls the flight, fight, freeze, fright, and faint response.

Bolles 1970 , a researcher at University of Washington, wanted to understand species-specific defense reactions and avoidance learning among animals, but found that the theories of avoidance learning and the tools that were used to measure this tendency were out of touch with the natural world. Even domesticated animals have SSDRs, and in those moments it is seen that animals revert to atavistic standards and become "wild" again. Bolles states that responses are often dependent on the reinforcement of a safety signal, and not the aversive conditioned stimuli.

This safety signal can be a source of feedback or even stimulus change. Intrinsic feedback or information coming from within, muscle twitches, increased heart rate, are seen to be more important in SSDRs than extrinsic feedback, stimuli that comes from the external environment. Bolles found that most creatures have some intrinsic set of fears, to help assure survival of the species.

Rats will run away from any shocking event, and pigeons will flap their wings harder when threatened. The wing flapping in pigeons and the scattered running of rats are considered species-specific defense reactions or behaviors. Bolles believed that SSDRs are conditioned through Pavlovian conditioning, and not operant conditioning; SSDRs arise from the association between the environmental stimuli and adverse events.

Fanselow conducted an experiment, to test some specific defense reactions, he observed that rats in two different shock situations responded differently, based on instinct or defensive topography, rather than contextual information. Humans and animals alike have created fear to know what should be avoided, and this fear can be learned through association with others in the community, or learned through personal experience with a creature, species, or situations that should be avoided.

SSDRs are an evolutionary adaptation that has been seen in many species throughout the world including rats, chimpanzees , prairie dogs , and even humans , an adaptation created to help individual creatures survive in a hostile world. Fear learning changes across the lifetime due to natural developmental changes in the brain.

Each amygdala is part of a circuitry of fear learning. In the presence of a threatening stimulus, the amygdalae generate the secretion of hormones that influence fear and aggression. This defensive response is generally referred to in physiology as the fight-or-flight response regulated by the hypothalamus, part of the limbic system.

Experimental data supports the notion that synaptic plasticity of the neurons leading to the lateral amygdalae occurs with fear conditioning. Rats infected with the toxoplasmosis parasite become less fearful of cats, sometimes even seeking out their urine-marked areas. This behavior often leads to them being eaten by cats. The parasite then reproduces within the body of the cat.

There is evidence that the parasite concentrates itself in the amygdala of infected rats. These rats pulled on levers supplying food that sometimes sent out electrical shocks.

While they learned to avoid pressing on them, they did not distance themselves from these shock-inducing levers. This is to defend themselves and at the same time to inform members of the same species of danger and leads to observable behavior change like freezing, defensive behavior, or dispersion depending on circumstances and species. For example, stressed rats release odorant cues that cause other rats to move away from the source of the signal. After the discovery of pheromones in 1959, alarm pheromones were first described in 1968 in ants [51] and earthworms, [52] and four years later also found in mammals, both mice and rats.

Earlier, in 1985, a link between odors released by stressed rats and pain perception was discovered: By using the forced swimming test in rats as a model of fear-induction, the first mammalian "alarm substance" was found. Pheromone production from the face modified behavior in the recipient rat, e.

It was not until 2011 that a link between severe pain, neuroinflammation and alarm pheromones release in rats was found: For this the change in the acoustic startle reflex of rats with alarm pheromone-induced anxiety i.

Pretreatment of rats with one of five anxiolytics used in clinical medicine was able to reduce their anxiety: The enzyme Mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 MAPK7 has been implicated in regulating the development of the olfactory bulb and odor discrimination and it is highly expressed in developing rat brains, but absent in most regions of adult rat brains.

Conditional deletion of the MAPK7gene in mouse neural stem cells impairs several pheromone-mediated behaviors, including aggression and mating in male mice. These behavior impairments were not caused by a reduction in the level of testosterone, by physical immobility, by heightened fear or anxiety or by depression. Using mouse urine as a natural pheromone-containing solution, it has been shown that the impairment was associated with defective detection of related pheromones, and with changes in their inborn preference for pheromones related to sexual and reproductive activities.

The term is in analogy to the 1985 "buffering" hypothesis in psychology, where social support has been proven to mitigate the negative health effects of alarm pheromone mediated distress. A bee colony exposed to an environment of high threat of predation did not show increased aggression and aggressive-like gene expression patterns in individual bees, but decreased aggression. That the bees did not simply habituate to threats is suggested by the fact that the disturbed colonies also decreased their foraging.

Pheromones may determine species compositions and affect rates of energy and material exchange in an ecological community. Thus pheromones generate structure in a food web and play critical roles in maintaining natural systems. Although alarm pheromones have not been physically isolated and their chemical structures have not been identified in humans so far, there is evidence for their presence.

Androstadienone , for example, a steroidal, endogenous odorant, is a pheromone candidate found in human sweat, axillary hair and plasma. The closely related compound androstenone is involved in communicating dominance, aggression or competition; sex hormone influences on androstenone perception in humans showed a high testosterone level related to heightened androstenone sensitivity in men, a high testosterone level related to unhappiness in response to androstenone in men, and a high estradiol level related to disliking of androstenone in women.

The acoustic startle reflex response to a sound when sensing anxiety sweat was larger than when sensing exercise-induced sweat, as measured by electromyograph analysis of the orbital muscle, which is responsible for the eyeblink component.

Researchers collected alarm-induced sweat and exercise-induced sweat from donors extracted it, pooled it and presented it to 16 unrelated people undergoing functional brain MRI. While stress-induced sweat from males produced a comparably strong emotional response in both females and males, stress-induced sweat from females produced a markedly stronger arousal in women than in men.

Statistical tests pinpointed this gender-specificity to the right amygdala and strongest in the superficial nuclei. Since no significant differences were found in the olfactory bulb , the response to female fear-induced signals is likely based on processing the meaning, i.

Volunteers smelling anandrostadienone, masked with clove oil scent responded faster, especially to angry faces, than those smelling clove oil only, which was interpreted as anandrostadienone-related activation of the fear system. Androstadienone is known to influence activity of the fusiform gyrus which is relevant for face recognition.

Pharmaceutical[ edit ] A drug treatment for fear conditioning and phobias via the amygdalae is the use of glucocorticoids. The glucocorticoid receptors were inhibited using lentiviral vectors containing Cre-recombinase injected into mice. Results showed that disruption of the glucocorticoid receptors prevented conditioned fear behavior.

The mice were subjected to auditory cues which caused them to freeze normally. However, a reduction of freezing was observed in the mice that had inhibited glucocorticoid receptors. Because fear is more complex than just forgetting or deleting memories, an active and successful approach involves people repeatedly confronting their fears. By confronting their fears in a safe manner a person can suppress the fear-triggering memory or stimulus. The fear of death ritualized the lives of our ancestors.

These rituals were designed to reduce that fear; they helped collect the cultural ideas that we now have in the present. The results and methods of human existence had been changing at the same time that social formation was changing.

One can say[ by whom? The result of this fear forced people to unite to fight dangers together rather than fight alone. Fear of God , Religious paranoia , and Category: Religion and death Religions are filled with different fears that humans have had throughout many centuries. Death is seen as a boundary to another world. That world would always be different depending on how each individual lived their lives. The origins of this intangible fear are not found in the present world.

In a sense we can assume that fear was a big influence on things such as morality.