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History Hermann Rorschach created the inkblot test in 1921. Interpretation of inkblots was central to a game, Gobolinks ,  from the late 19th century. Although he had served as Vice President of the Swiss Psychoanalytic Society, Rorschach had difficulty in publishing the book and it attracted little attention when it first appeared. Exner summarized some of these later developments in the comprehensive system, at the same time trying to make the scoring more statistically rigorous.
Some systems are based on the psychoanalytic concept of object relations. The Exner system remains very popular in the United States , while in Europe other methods sometimes dominate,   such as that described in the textbook by Evald Bohm , which is closer to the original Rorschach system and rooted more deeply in the original psychoanalysis principles.
It was not until 1939 that the test was used as a projective test of personality, a use of which Rorschach had always been skeptical. The administrator and subject typically sit next to each other at a table, with the administrator slightly behind the subject.
Side-by-side seating of the examiner and the subject is used to reduce any effects of inadvertent cues from the examiner to the subject. Five inkblots are of black ink, two are of black and red ink and three are multicolored, on a white background. The subject is usually asked to hold the cards and may rotate them.
Whether the cards are rotated, and other related factors such as whether permission to rotate them is asked, may expose personality traits and normally contributes to the assessment. Analysis of responses is recorded by the test administrator using a tabulation and scoring sheet and, if required, a separate location chart. The underlying assumption is that an individual will class external stimuli based on person-specific perceptual sets, and including needs , base motives , conflicts , and that this clustering process is representative of the process used in real-life situations.
Administration of the test to a group of subjects, by means of projected images, has also occasionally been performed, but mainly for research rather than diagnostic purposes. The interpretation of a Rorschach record is a complex process. It requires a wealth of knowledge concerning personality dynamics generally as well as considerable experience with the Rorschach method specifically. Proficiency as a Rorschach administrator can be gained within a few months.
However, even those who are able and qualified to become Rorschach interpreters usually remain in a "learning stage" for a number of years. In fact, the contents of the response are only a comparatively small portion of a broader cluster of variables that are used to interpret the Rorschach data: There are 27 established codes for identifying the name of the descriptive object.
The codes are classified and include terms such as "human", "nature", "animal", "abstract", "clothing", "fire", and "x-ray", to name a few. Content described that does not have a code already established should be coded using the code "idiographic contents" with the shorthand code being "Idio. Location refers to how much of the inkblot was used to answer the question. Administrators score the response "W" if the whole inkblot was used to answer the question, "D" if a commonly described part of the blot was used, "Dd" if an uncommonly described or unusual detail was used, or "S" if the white space in the background was used.
D is interpreted as one having efficient or adequate functioning. A high frequency of responses coded Dd indicate some maladjustment within the individual. Responses coded S indicate an oppositional or uncooperative test subject. They can also represent certain basic experiential-perceptual attitudes, showing aspects of the way a subject perceives the world. However currently, another major determinant considered is shading,  which was inadvertently introduced by poor printing quality of the inkblots.
Rorschach initially disregarded shading,  since the inkblots originally featured uniform saturation, but later recognized it as a significant factor. Movement and shading have been considered more ambiguously, both in definition and interpretation. Rorschach considered movement only as the experiencing of actual motion, while others have widened the scope of this determinant, taking it to mean that the subject sees something "going on".
Fusion of two determinants is taken into account, while also assessing which of the two constituted the primary contributor. For example, "form-color" implies a more refined control of impulse than "color-form".
It is, indeed, from the relation and balance among determinants that personality can be most readily inferred. Many unquestionably accept this aspect of the nature of the images but Rorschach, as well as other researchers, certainly did not. Rorschach experimented with both asymmetric and symmetric images before finally opting for the latter. Asymmetric figures are rejected by many subjects; symmetry supplied part of the necessary artistic composition.
It has a disadvantage in that it tends to make answers somewhat stereotyped. On the other hand, symmetry makes conditions the same for right and left handed subjects; furthermore, it facilitates interpretation for certain blocked subjects. Finally, symmetry makes possible the interpretation of whole scenes. It was developed in the 1960s by Dr. Exner , as a more rigorous system of analysis. It has been extensively validated and shows high inter-rater reliability.
He later published a study in multiple volumes called The Rorschach: A Comprehensive system, the most accepted full description of his system. Creation of the new system was prompted by the realization that at least five related, but ultimately different methods were in common use at the time, with a sizeable minority of examiners not employing any recognized method at all, basing instead their judgment on subjective assessment, or arbitrarily mixing characteristics of the various standardized systems.
It has been reported that popular responses on the first card include bat, badge and coat of arms. The results of the structural summary are interpreted using existing research data on personality characteristics that have been demonstrated to be associated with different kinds of responses.
With the Rorschach plates the ten inkblots , the area of each blot which is distinguished by the client is noted and coded—typically as "commonly selected" or "uncommonly selected". There were many different methods for coding the areas of the blots. Exner settled upon the area coding system promoted by S. Beck 1944 and 1961. The manual consists of two chapters that are basics of scoring and interpretation, aimed for use for novice Rorschach users, followed by numerous chapters containing more detailed and technical information.
To note, the authors did not create new variables or indices to be coded, but systematically reviewed variables that had been used in past systems. Scoring of the indices has been updated e. Cultural differences Comparing North American Exner normative data with data from European and South American subjects showed marked differences in some features, some of which impact important variables, while others such as the average number of responses coincide.
Test responses should also not be translated into another language prior to analysis except possibly by a clinician mastering both languages. For example, a bow tie is a frequent response for the center detail of card III, but since the equivalent term in French translates to "butterfly tie", an examiner not appreciating this language nuance may code the response differently from what is expected.