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Дата: 21.01.2018

преследование (2009)

Forms[ edit ] Religious persecution can be considered the opposite of freedom of religion. Religious persecution may also affect atheists in that they may be denounced as being amoral or be persecuted by the religious on the grounds that they are godless.

Often it is the alleged persecution of individuals within a group - in the attempt to maintain their religious identity, or the exercise of power by an individual or organization - that causes members of a religious group to suffer.

Denial of civil rights on the basis of religion is most often described as religious discrimination , rather than religious persecution. Ethnicity[ edit ] During Nazi rule, Jews were forced to wear yellow stars identifying them as such. Jews are an ethno-religious group and Nazi persecution was based on their race Other acts of violence, such as war , torture , and ethnic cleansing not aimed at religion in particular, may nevertheless take on the qualities of religious persecution when one or more of the parties involved are characterized by religious homogeneity; an example being when conflicting populations that belong to different ethnic groups often also belong to different religions or denominations.

The difference between religious and ethnic identity might sometimes be obscure see: Ethnoreligious ; cases of genocide in the 20th century cannot be explained in full by citing religious differences.

The Holocaust made no distinction between secular Jews, atheistic Jews, orthodox Jews and Jews that had converted to Christianity. Cases[ edit ] The descriptive use of the term religious persecution is rather difficult.

Religious persecution has taken place at least since antiquity , and has happened in different historical, geographical and social contexts. Until the 18th century, some groups were nearly universally persecuted for their views about religion, such as atheists, [2] Jews [3] and zoroastrians. Jordan wrote as the threat of fascism rose in Europe, and this work is seen as a defense of the fragile values of humanism and tolerance.

Tolerance and intolerance in England, 1500-1700 2006 by Alexandra Walsham. To understand why religious persecution has occurred, historians like Coffey "pay close attention to what the persecutors said they were doing. This degree of diversity tolerated within a particular church is described as ecclesiastical tolerance, [7] and is one form of religious toleration.

However, when people nowadays speak of religious tolerance, they most often mean civil tolerance, which refers to the degree of religious diversity that is tolerated within the state. In modern western civil law any citizen may join and leave a religious organization at will; In western societies, this is taken for granted, but actually, this legal separation of Church and State only started to emerge a few centuries ago. Before that, theologians like Joseph Hall had reasoned from the ecclesiastical intolerance of the early Christian church in the New Testament to the civil intolerance of the Christian state.

Religious uniformity By contrast to the notion of civil tolerance, in early modern Europe the subjects were required to attend the state church ; This attitude can be described as territoriality or religious uniformity , and its underlying assumption is brought to a point by a statement of the Anglican theologian Richard Hooker: In England there had been several Acts of Uniformity ; in continental Europe the Latin phrase " cuius regio, eius religio " had been coined in the 16th century and applied as a fundament for the Peace of Augsburg 1555.

It was pushed to the extreme by absolutist regimes , particularly by the French kings Louis XIV and his successors. It was under their rule that Catholicism became the sole compulsory allowed religion in France and that the huguenots had to massively leave the country. Persecution for heresy and blasphemy[ edit ] See also: Christian heresy and Heresy in Orthodox Judaism The persecution of beliefs that are deemed schismatic is one thing; the persecution of beliefs that are deemed heretic or blasphemous is another.

Although a public disagreement on secondary matters might be serious enough, it has often only led to religious discrimination. A public renouncement of core elements of a religious doctrine under the same circumstances, on the other hand, would have put one far greater danger. While a dissenter from its official Church was only faced with fines and imprisonment in Protestant England, six people were executed for heresy or blasphemy during the reign of Elizabeth I , and two more in 1612 under James I.

Some heretics were executed by burning them alive. According to an inscription of Khan Mengual-Temir, Metropolitan Kiril was granted the right to heavily punish with death for blasphemy against the Orthodox Church or breach of ecclesiastical privileges.

Gennady admired the Spanish inquisitors, especially his contemporary Torquemada , who for 15 years of inquisition activity burned and punished thousands of people. As in Rome, persecuted fled to depopulated areas. The most terrible punishment was considered an underground pit, where rats lived. Some people had been imprisoned and tied to the wall there, and untied after their death. The writer Lomonosov opposed the religious teachings and by his initiative a scientific book against them was published.

This included the tethering to a ponytail, drowning and freezing people alive in lakes. The words step back, the pen does not move, in eternal darkness the ancient Solovetsky monastery is going. Of the more than 500 people, only a few managed to avoid the terrible court. English governments continued to fear the fictitious Popish Plot.

The 1584 Parliament of England , declared in " An Act against Jesuits, seminary priests, and such other like disobedient persons " that the purpose of Jesuit missionaries who had come to Britain was "to stir up and move sedition, rebellion and open hostility". This somehow contrasts with the image of the Elizabethan era as the time of William Shakespeare , but compared to the antecedent Marian Persecutions there is an important difference to consider.

Mary I of England had been motivated by a religious zeal to purge heresy from her land, and during her short reign from 1553 to 1558 about 290 Protestants [20] had been burned at the stake for heresy, whereas Elizabeth I of England "acted out of fear for the security of her realm. Early persecution of and by monotheisms[ edit ] Saint Peter , an apostle of Jesus, was executed by the Romans According to Rabbinic tradition, monotheistic Judaism arose in Egypt under the direction of Moses.

Among the Ten Commandments of that religion was one that forbade the worship of any other god than Yahweh ; this led to conflict when Imperial Rome extended its reach into the Middle East. Early Christianity also came into conflict with the Roman Empire, and may have been more threatening to the established polytheistic order than had been Judaism, because of the importance of evangelism in Christianity.

Under Nero , the Jewish exemption from the requirement to participate in public cults was lifted and Rome began to actively persecute monotheists. By the eighth century Christianity had attained a clear ascendancy across Europe and neighboring regions, and a period of consolidation began marked by the pursuit of heretics , heathens , Jews , Muslims , and various other religious groups.