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Alabaster sunken relief depicting Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and daughter Meritaten. In the damaged tomb TT188 of the royal butler Parennefer , the new king Amenhotep IV is accompanied by a royal woman, and this lady is thought to be an early depiction of Nefertiti. The king and queen are shown worshiping the Aten.
In the tomb of the vizier Ramose , Nefertiti is shown standing behind Amenhotep IV in the Window of Appearance during the reward ceremony for the vizier.
On display at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. One of the structures, the Mansion of the Benben hwt-ben-ben , was dedicated to Nefertiti.
She is depicted with her daughter Meritaten and in some scenes the princess Meketaten participates as well. In scenes found on the talatat , Nefertiti appears almost twice as often as her husband. She is shown appearing behind her husband the Pharaoh in offering scenes in the role of the queen supporting her husband, but she is also depicted in scenes that would have normally been the prerogative of the king.
She is shown smiting the enemy, and captive enemies decorate her throne. In his fifth year, Amenhotep IV officially changed his name to Akhenaten , and Nefertiti was henceforth known as Neferneferuaten-Nefertiti.
The name change was a sign of the ever-increasing importance of the cult of the Aten. The new city contained several large open-air temples dedicated to the Aten. Nefertiti and her family would have resided in the Great Royal Palace in the centre of the city and possibly at the Northern Palace as well.
Nefertiti and the rest of the royal family feature prominently in the scenes at the palaces and in the tombs of the nobles. He would have been in charge of running her household. The people of Kharu the north and Kush the south are shown bringing gifts of gold and precious items to Akhenaten and Nefertiti. Another is a small inlay head Petrie Museum Number UC103 modeled from reddish-brown quartzite that was clearly intended to fit into a larger composition. Meketaten may have died in year 13 or 14.
Nefertiti, Akhenaten, and three princesses are shown mourning her. Neferneferuaten Many scholars believe Nefertiti had a role elevated from that of Great Royal Wife , and was promoted to co-regent by her husband Pharaoh Akhentaten before his death.
It is also possible that, in a similar fashion to Hatshepsut, Nefertiti disguised herself as a male and assumed the male alter-ego of Smenkhkare ; in this instance she could have elevated her daughter Meritaten to the role of Great Royal Wife.
If Nefertiti did rule Egypt as Pharaoh, it has been theorized that she would have attempted damage control and may have re-instated the Ancient Egyptian religion and the Amun priests, and had Tutankhamun raised in with the traditional gods. She is given the title of Mistress of the Two Lands. On display at the Ashmolean Museum , Oxford.
Explanations included a sudden death, by a plague that was sweeping through the city, or some other natural death. This theory was based on the discovery of several shabti fragments inscribed for Nefertiti now located in the Louvre and Brooklyn Museums.
A previous theory, that she fell into disgrace, was discredited when deliberate erasures of monuments belonging to a queen of Akhenaten were shown to refer to Kiya instead.
By the twelfth year of his reign, there is evidence she may have been elevated to the status of co-regent: It is possible Nefertiti is the ruler named Neferneferuaten. Some theories believe that Nefertiti was still alive and held influence on the younger royals. In that year, Tutankhaten changed his name to Tutankhamun. This is evidence of his return to the official worship of Amun , and abandonment of Amarna to return the capital to Thebes.
This inscription offers incontrovertible evidence that both Akhenaten and Nefertiti were still alive in the 16th year of his ie. This makes it necessary to rethink the final years of the Amarna Period.
Therefore, the rule of the female Amarna pharaoh known as Neferneferuaten must be placed between the death of Akhenaten and the accession of Tutankhamun. Burial[ edit ] Limestone trial piece showing head of Nefertiti. Mainly in ink, but the lips were cut out. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London There are many theories regarding her death and burial but, to date, the mummy of this famous queen, her parents, or her children has not been found or formally identified.
The lock of hair was found in a coffinette bearing an inscription naming Queen Tiye. Fletcher suggested that Nefertiti was the Pharaoh Smenkhkare. Some Egyptologists hold to this view though the majority believe Smenkhkare to have been a separate person.
Mummification techniques, such as the use of embalming fluid and the presence of an intact brain , suggested an eighteenth-dynasty royal mummy. Other elements which the team used to support their theory were the age of the body, the presence of embedded nefer beads, and a wig of a rare style worn by Nefertiti. They say that ancient mummies are almost impossible to identify as a particular person without DNA.
Any circumstantial evidence, such as hairstyle and arm position, is not reliable enough to pinpoint a single, specific historical person. The cause of damage to the mummy can only be speculated upon, and the alleged revenge is an unsubstantiated theory. The wig found near the mummy is of unknown origin, and cannot be conclusively linked to that specific body.
Finally, the 18th dynasty was one of the largest and most prosperous dynasties of ancient Egypt. In addition to that, there was controversy about both the age and sex of the mummy. On June 12, 2003, Egyptian archaeologist Dr. On August 30, 2003, Reuters further quoted Hawass: Fragments of shattered bone were found in the sinus, and blood clots were found. The theory that the damage was inflicted post-mummification was rejected, and a murder scenario was deemed more likely.
The broken-off bent forearm found near the mummy, which had been proposed to have belonged to it, was conclusively shown not to actually belong to the Younger Lady. Scholars think that, after Tutankhamun returned Egypt to the traditional religion, he moved his closest relatives - father, grandmother, and biological mother - to the Valley of the Kings to be buried with him according to the list of figurines and drawings in his tomb. The Hittite ruler receives a letter from the Egyptian queen, while being in siege on Karkemish.
They say about you that you have many sons. You might give me one of your sons to become my husband. I would not wish to take one of my subjects as a husband... This document is considered extraordinary, as Egyptians traditionally considered foreigners to be inferior.
Suppiluliuma I was surprised and exclaimed to his courtiers: Understandably, he was wary, and had an envoy investigate the situation, but by so doing, he missed his chance to bring Egypt into his empire. He eventually did send one of his sons, Zannanza , but the prince died, perhaps murdered, en route. Ankhesenamun once seemed likely since there were no candidates for the throne on the death of her husband, Tutankhamun, whereas Akhenaten had at least two legitimate successors.
This makes the deceased Egyptian king appear to be Akhenaten instead rather than Tutankhamun.