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Дата: 10.03.2018

анархист (2016)

Woodcut from a Diggers document by William Everard The earliest [40] anarchist themes can be found in the 6th century BC among the works of Taoist philosopher Laozi [41] and in later centuries by Zhuangzi and Bao Jingyan.

A great brigand becomes a ruler of a Nation". He argued in Political Justice 1793 [60] [62] that government has an inherently malevolent influence on society, and that it perpetuates dependency and ignorance.

He thought that the spread of the use of reason to the masses would eventually cause government to wither away as an unnecessary force. Although he did not accord the state with moral legitimacy, he was against the use of revolutionary tactics for removing the government from power. Rather, he advocated for its replacement through a process of peaceful evolution.

He considered the basic foundations of society as constraining the natural development of individuals to use their powers of reasoning to arrive at a mutually beneficial method of social organisation. In each case, government and its institutions are shown to constrain the development of our capacity to live wholly in accordance with the full and free exercise of private judgement. The French Pierre-Joseph Proudhon is regarded as the first self-proclaimed anarchist, a label he adopted in his groundbreaking work, What is Property?

It is for this reason that some claim Proudhon as the founder of modern anarchist theory. His famous quote on the matter is "Liberty is the mother, not the daughter, of order".

In What is Property? Proudhon answers with the famous accusation " Property is theft. Later, however, Proudhon added that "Property is Liberty" and argued that it was a bulwark against state power.

After most of these attempts at systematic change ended in failure, conservative elements took advantage of the divided groups of socialists, anarchists, liberals, and nationalists, to prevent further revolt. Karl Marx became a leading figure in the International and a member of its General Council. Greene had been members of the First International.

At first, the collectivists worked with the Marxists to push the First International in a more revolutionary socialist direction. Subsequently, the International became polarised into two camps, with Marx and Bakunin as their respective figureheads.

Most of them were clearly directed against Bakunin and his followers. In response, the federalist sections formed their own International at the St. Imier Congress , adopting a revolutionary anarchist programme. Anarchists participated actively in the establishment of the Paris Commune. They included Louise Michel , the Reclus brothers, and Eugene Varlin the latter murdered in the repression afterwards.

As for the reforms initiated by the Commune, such as the re-opening of workplaces as co-operatives, anarchists can see their ideas of associated labour beginning to be realised...

Thus both economically and politically the Paris Commune was heavily influenced by anarchist ideas. The Haymarket affair is generally considered the most significant event for the origin of international May Day observances. In response, unions across the United States prepared a general strike in support of the event. The men became international political celebrities among the labour movement.

Four of the men were executed and a fifth committed suicide prior to his own execution. The incident became known as the Haymarket affair, and was a setback for the labour movement and the struggle for the eight-hour day. In 1890 a second attempt, this time international in scope, to organise for the eight-hour day was made. The event also had the secondary purpose of memorialising workers killed as a result of the Haymarket affair.

Various themes were treated during the Congress, in particular concerning the organisation of the anarchist movement, popular education issues, the general strike or antimilitarism. A central debate concerned the relation between anarchism and syndicalism or trade unionism. Malatesta and Monatte were in particular disagreement themselves on this issue, as the latter thought that syndicalism was revolutionary and would create the conditions of a social revolution , while Malatesta did not consider syndicalism by itself sufficient.

Malatesta warned that the syndicalists aims were in perpetuating syndicalism itself, whereas anarchists must always have anarchy as their end and consequently refrain from committing to any particular method of achieving it. CNT , founded in 1910. Before the 1940s, the CNT was the major force in Spanish working class politics, attracting 1. In Latin America in particular "The anarchists quickly became active in organising craft and industrial workers throughout South and Central America, and until the early 1920s most of the trade unions in Mexico , Brazil , Peru, Chile, and Argentina were anarcho-syndicalist in general outlook; the prestige of the Spanish C.

Therefore, massacres of the enemies of the people must be set in motion. The Science of Revolutionary Warfare, a how-to manual on the subject of making explosives, based on knowledge he acquired while working at an explosives plant in New Jersey. Moreover, they were clearly meant to be exemplary invitations to revolt. However, as soon as 1887, important figures in the anarchist movement distanced themselves from such individual acts.

The anarcho-syndicalist, Fernand Pelloutier , argued in 1895 for renewed anarchist involvement in the labour movement on the basis that anarchism could do very well without "the individual dynamiter.

The dismemberment of the French socialist movement , into many groups and, following the suppression of the 1871 Paris Commune, the execution and exile of many communards to penal colonies , favoured individualist political expression and acts.