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алабама (2013)

Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization.

The Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples; it is one of the primary means by which their religion is understood. European settlement[ edit ] With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama. The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane.

The latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. He settled in the Tombigbee District during the early 1770s. Most of what is now the northern two-thirds of Alabama was known as the Yazoo lands beginning during the British colonial period. It was claimed by the Province of Georgia from 1767 onwards. Following the Revolutionary War , it remained a part of Georgia , although heavily disputed. The Yazoo lands were added to the territory in 1804, following the Yazoo land scandal.

Stephens , now abandoned, served as the territorial capital from 1817 to 1819. From July 5 to August 2, 1819, delegates met to prepare the new state constitution. Huntsville served as temporary capital from 1819 to 1820, when the seat of government moved to Cahaba in Dallas County.

It is a former Black Belt plantation. Cahaba, now a ghost town, was the first permanent state capital from 1820 to 1825. Alabama had an estimated population of under 10,000 people in 1810, but it increased to more than 300,000 people by 1830.

Designed by William Nichols , it was built from 1827 to 1829 and was destroyed by fire in 1923. On January 30, 1846, the Alabama legislature announced it had voted to move the capital city from Tuscaloosa to Montgomery. The first legislative session in the new capital met in December 1847. The first structure burned down in 1849, but was rebuilt on the same site in 1851. This second capitol building in Montgomery remains to the present day.

It was designed by Barachias Holt of Exeter, Maine. After remaining an independent republic for a few days, it joined the Confederate States of America. Alabama was heavily involved in the American Civil War. Although comparatively few battles were fought in the state, Alabama contributed about 120,000 soldiers to the war effort.

Union Army troops occupying Courthouse Square in Huntsville, following its capture and occupation by federal forces in 1864. The company wore new uniforms with yellow trim on the sleeves, collar and coat tails.

This led to them being greeted with "Yellowhammer", and the name later was applied to all Alabama troops in the Confederate Army.

From 1867 to 1874, with most white citizens barred temporarily from voting and freedmen enfranchised, many African Americans emerged as political leaders in the state. Alabama was represented in Congress during this period by three African-American congressmen: Jeremiah Haralson , Benjamin S. Turner , and James T. Legislators funded numerous public road and railroad projects, although these were plagued with allegations of fraud and misappropriation. They wrote another constitution in 1875, [52] and the legislature passed the Blaine Amendment , prohibiting public money from being used to finance religious-affiliated schools.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December 2017 Learn how and when to remove this template message The developing skyline of Birmingham in 1915 The new 1901 Constitution of Alabama included provisions for voter registration that effectively disenfranchised large portions of the population, including nearly all African Americans and Native Americans, and tens of thousands of poor whites, through making voter registration difficult, requiring a poll tax and literacy test.

By 1903, only 2,980 African Americans were registered in Alabama, although at least 74,000 were literate. This compared to more than 181,000 African Americans eligible to vote in 1900. The numbers dropped even more in later decades. Despite numerous legal challenges that succeeded in overturning certain provisions, the state legislature would create new ones to maintain disenfranchisement. The exclusion of blacks from the political system persisted until after passage of federal civil rights legislation in 1965 to enforce their constitutional rights as citizens.

The rural-dominated Alabama legislature consistently underfunded schools and services for the disenfranchised African Americans, but it did not relieve them of paying taxes.

In Alabama these schools were designed and the construction partially financed with Rosenwald funds, which paid one-third of the construction costs. The fund required the local community and state to raise matching funds to pay the rest. Black residents effectively taxed themselves twice, by raising additional monies to supply matching funds for such schools, which were built in many rural areas.

They often donated land and labor as well. It was one of the 387 Rosenwald Schools built in the state. Beginning in 1913, the first 80 Rosenwald Schools were built in Alabama for African-American children.

Several of the surviving school buildings in the state are now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Reflecting this emigration, the population growth rate in Alabama see "historical populations" table below dropped by nearly half from 1910 to 1920. At the same time, many rural people, both white and African American, migrated to the city of Birmingham to work in new industrial jobs. Birmingham experienced such rapid growth that it was called the "Magic City".

Heavy industry and mining were the basis of its economy. Its residents were under-represented for decades in the state legislature, which refused to redistrict after each decennial census according to population changes, as it was required by the state constitution. This did not change until the late 1960s following a lawsuit and court order. Beginning in the 1940s, when the courts started taking the first steps to recognize the voting rights of black voters, the Alabama legislature took several counter-steps designed to disfranchise black voters.

The legislature passed, and the voters ratified [as these were mostly white voters], a state constitutional amendment that gave local registrars greater latitude to disqualify voter registration applicants. Black citizens in Mobile successfully challenged this amendment as a violation of the Fifteenth Amendment. The legislature also changed the boundaries of Tuskegee to a 28-sided figure designed to fence out blacks from the city limits.

The Supreme Court unanimously held that this racial " gerrymandering " violated the Constitution. One example of this massive influx of workers occurred in Mobile. Between 1940 and 1943, more than 89,000 people moved into the city to work for war-related industries.

Despite massive population changes in the state from 1901 to 1961, the rural-dominated legislature refused to reapportion House and Senate seats based on population, as required by the state constitution to follow the results of decennial censuses. They held on to old representation to maintain political and economic power in agricultural areas. In addition, the state legislature gerrymandered the few Birmingham legislative seats to ensure election by persons living outside Birmingham.

Urban interests were consistently underrepresented in the legislature. A 1960 study noted that because of rural domination, "a minority of about 25 per cent of the total state population is in majority control of the Alabama legislature. In 1962 White v. Crook , Judge Frank M. Johnson ordered the state to redistrict. United States Supreme Court cases of Baker v.

Carr 1962 and Reynolds v. Sims 1964 ruled that the principle of " one man, one vote " needed to be the basis of both houses of state legislatures as well, and that their districts had to be based on population, rather than geographic counties, as Alabama had used for its senate. In 1972, for the first time since 1901, the legislature completed the first congressional redistricting based on the decennial census. This benefited the urban areas that had developed, as well as all in the population who had been underrepresented for more than 60 years.

African Americans continued to press in the 1950s and 1960s to end disenfranchisement and segregation in the state through the Civil Rights Movement , including legal challenges. Board of Education that public schools had to be desegregated, but Alabama was slow to comply. During the 1960s, under Governor George Wallace , Alabama resisted compliance with federal demands for desegregation.

Legal segregation ended in the states in 1964, but Jim Crow customs often continued until specifically challenged in court. In addition, the rural Black Belt called that for its soil that stretches across the middle of the state is home to largely poor counties that are predominantly African-American.

These counties include Dallas , Lowndes , Marengo and Perry. There is very limited home rule, but the legislature is deeply involved in passing legislation that applies to county-level functions and policies. This both deprives local residents of the ability to govern themselves and distracts the legislature from statewide issues. Alabama has made some changes since the late 20th century and has used new types of voting to increase representation.

In the 1980s, an omnibus redistricting case, Dillard v. Crenshaw County , challenged the at-large voting for representative seats of 180 Alabama jurisdictions, including counties and school boards. At-large voting had diluted the votes of any minority in a county, as the majority tended to take all seats.

Despite African Americans making up a significant minority in the state, they had been unable to elect any representatives in most of the at-large jurisdictions.

As part of settlement of this case, five Alabama cities and counties, including Chilton County , adopted a system of cumulative voting for election of representatives in multi-seat jurisdictions. This has resulted in more proportional representation for voters. In another form of proportional representation, 23 jurisdictions use limited voting, as in Conecuh County.

In 1982, limited voting was first tested in Conecuh County. Together use of these systems has increased the number of African Americans and women being elected to local offices, resulting in governments that are more representative of their citizens.